Wednesday, November 22, 2017

"Chinese" Pavilions by Frederick Crace

Frederick Crace
Design for Chinese pavilion
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Chinese pavilion
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Chinese pavilion
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

"Throughout the nineteenth century, the arts of China and Japan were an inexhaustible source for design ideas.  Chinoiserie, a pseudo-Chinese decorative style popularized by Europeans in the 1730s, reappeared during the Regency and continued into the nineteenth century."

"European interest in non-Western art was first stimulated by trade with the East in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.  By the nineteenth century, with the advent of the railroad and steamship, lands that were little known to Westerners became easier to access.  As more Europeans traveled beyond the established routes of the Grand Tour, their experiences abroad began to influence their tastes at home.  Other influences were a result of England's massive imperial control over lands in China, India, Africa and the Pacific.  By mid-century, many non-Western forms and ornamental motifs had found their way into the vocabulary of the European decorative arts."

"Like Orientalist subjects in nineteenth-century painting, exoticism in the decorative arts and interior decoration was associated with fantasies of opulence and "barbaric splendour," in the words of the English explorer, linguist, and writer, Sir Richard F. Burton (1821-1890).  The arts of the East were also considered quaint and uncorrupted by industrial capitalism.  While English critics complained about the lack of integrity and poor design in the utilitarian goods that were being produced in their factories, they exalted the preindustrialized nations and held them in great esteem as examples of good design."

"By the end of the century, the exotic, as appropriated by the West, had become a mass-produced commodity in itself; exotic images were used to sell everything from cigarettes to candy.  However, the exotic continued to influence the appearance of the decorative arts as it fused with the organic whiplash curves of the avant-garde style known as Art Nouveau."

 excerpted from Exoticism in the Decorative Arts by Sara J. Oshinsky, an essay from the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History at the Metropolitan Museum, New York

Frederick Crace
Design for Chinese pavilion
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Chinese pavilion
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Chinese pavilion
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Chinese pavilion
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Chinese pavilion
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Chinese pavilion
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Chinese pavilion
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
The Fishing Temple, Virginia Water, in the form of a Chinese Pavilion
ca. 1818-19
drawing
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
The Fishing Temple, Virginia Water, in the form of a Chinese Pavilion
ca. 1825
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

George IV built the "Fishing Temple" on a lake in Windsor Park during the 1820s.  In 1867 Queen Victoria converted it into a "Swiss Cottage."  This was demolished in 1936.

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

More Chinoiserie for Brighton

Frederick Crace
Wall Design for Banqueting Room
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Wall Design for Anteroom
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1802
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Blue Drawing Room Door and Overdoor
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

CHINOISERIE

Is it the moon afar
     Yonder appears?
Nay!  'tis the evening star
     Seen through my tears.

 J.K. Wetherill, published in Poetry (Chicago), December, 1915

Frederick Crace
Design for Yellow Room Door and Overdoor
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1802
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum


Frederick Crace
Design for Entrance Hall, North Wall
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1802
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Entrance Hall, West Wall
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1802
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Entrance Hall, West Wall
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1802
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Gallery
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1803
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Lobby
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Passageway with Canopy
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1803
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Wall Design for King's Apartments
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Wall Design with Bookcases  for King's Library
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1802
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Bed with Tented Alcove
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1804
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Wall Design for Corridor
Royal Pavilion, Brighton

ca. 1802
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Designs for the Brighton Pavilion by Frederick Crace

Frederick Crace
Exterior view of Frederick Crace and Son Establishment, 14 Wigmore Street, London
ca. 1827-40
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace (1779-1859) is identified in the Dictionary of National Biography as an "architectural decorator," famously skilled at blending Chinese, Islamic and Mughal elements into the "exoticism" that prevailed at the top of the market in his day.  He supplied a plenitude of inspirations for the interiors of the Royal Pavilion at Brighton, enlarged and radically refitted for George IV between 1815 and 1822.  Crace produced numerous alternative proposals in the form of highly finished watercolors and gouaches, as sampled here.  These offered a range of schemes and choices, ultimately intended for execution by lesser craftspeople.

Frederick Crace
Design for Music Room, North Wall, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1818-19
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Music Room, North Wall, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1818-19
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Music Room, South Wall, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1818-19
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Music Room, West Wall, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1818-19
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Music Room Carpet, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1818-19
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Music Room Ceiling with Fretwork Balcony and Open Sky, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1820
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Music Room, West Wall, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1817
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Music Room Curtains, East Wall, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
1820
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Music Room Curtains, East Wall, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1817
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Music Room Curtains, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1818-19
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Window Alcove, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Window Alcove, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
1822
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Frederick Crace
Design for Wall Decoration with Oriental Landscape, Royal Pavilion, Brighton
ca. 1815-22
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Monday, November 20, 2017

Painted Views of English Rooms

Augustus Charles Pugin
Library at Cassiobury
before 1816
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

William Henry Hunt
Green Drawing Room of the Earl of Essex at Cassiobury
1823
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Anonymous English artist
Large Salon with Organ
1830
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

William Alfred Delamotte
Drawing Room at Middleton Park, Oxfordshire
1839
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

William Alfred Delamotte
Drawing Room looking toward Conservatory, Middleton Park, Oxfordshire
1840
watercolor gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Anonymous English artist
Drawing Room
ca. 1842
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

 "Mr. Harding had ever mixed something of fear with his warm affection for his elder son-in-law, and now in these closing hours of his life he could not avoid a certain amount of shrinking from that loud voice  a certain inaptitude to be quite at his ease in that commanding presence.  The dean, his second son-in-law, had been a modern friend in comparison with the archdeacon: but the dean was more gentle with him: and then the dean's wife had ever been the dearest to him of human beings.  It may be a doubt whether one of the dean's children was not now almost more dear, and whether in these days he did not have more free communication with that little girl than with any other human being.  Her name was Susan, but he had always called her Posy, having himself invented for her that soubriquet.  . . .  Posy was now five years old, and could talk well, and had her own ideas of things.  Posy's eyes,  hers, and no other besides her own,  were allowed to see the inhabitant of the big black case [a cello]; and now that the deanery was so nearly deserted, Posy's fingers had touched the strings, and had produced an infantine moan.  'Grandpa, let me do it again.'  Twang!  It was not, however, in truth, a twang, but a sound as of a prolonged dull, almost deadly, hum-m-m-m-m!  On this occasion the moan was not entirely infantine,  Posy's fingers have been something too strong, – and the case was closed and locked, and grandpa shook his head.   
     'But Mrs. Baxter won't be angry,' said Posy.  Mrs. Baxter was the housekeeper in the deanery, and had Mr. Harding under her especial charge.
     'No, my darling; Mrs. Baxter will not be angry, but we mustn't disturb the house.'
     'No,' said Posy, with much of important awe in her tone; 'we mustn't disturb the house; must we, grandpapa?'  And so she gave in her adhesion to the closing of the case.  But Posy could play cat's-cradle, and as cat's-cradle did not disturb the house at all, there was a good deal of cat's-cradle played in these days.  Posy's fingers were soft and pretty, so small and deft, that the dear old man delighted in taking the strings from them, and in having them taken from his own by those tender little digits."
     
 – Anthony Trollope, from The Last Chronicle of Barset (1867)

Charles James Richardson
Entrance Hall, East Sutton Place, Kent
1844
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Charles James Richardson
Library in Gothic Style
ca. 1860
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Joseph Nash the Elder
Elizabethan Room at Lyme Hall, Cheshire
1872
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Henry Robert Robertson
Hall Place, Leigh near Tonbridge, Kent
1878
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

M F Pearce
Library, Brabourne Vicarage
ca. 1890
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

"A daughter of the archdeacon had made a splendid matrimonial alliance,  so splendid that its history was at the time known to all the aristocracy of the county, and had not been altogether forgotten by any of those who keep themselves well instructed in the detail of the peerage.  Griselda Grantly had married Lord Dumbello, the eldest son of the Marquis of Hartletop,  than whom no English nobleman was more puissant, if broad acres, many castles, high title, and stars and ribbons are any signs of puissance,  and she was now, herself, Marchioness of Hartletop, with a little Lord Dumbello of her own.  The daughter's visits to the parsonage of her father were of necessity rare, such necessity having come from her own altered sphere of life.  A Marchioness of Hartletop has special duties which will hardly permit her to devote herself frequently to the humdrum society of a clerical father and mother.  That it would be so, father and mother understood when they sent the fortunate girl forth to a higher world.  But, now and again, since her august marriage, she had laid her coroneted head upon one of the old rectory pillows for a night or so, and on such occasions all the Plumsteadians had been loud in praise of her condescension."

 Anthony Trollope, from The Last Chronicle of Barset (1867)

M F Pearce
Informal Sitting Room, Brabourne Vicarage
1893
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum
 
Maria Cheval Tooke
Drawing Room, Cosham House
1892
watercolor
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum

Edward Lampson Henry
Library
ca. 1915
watercolor, gouache
Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum