Thursday, July 27, 2017

Painted around 1600 in Europe

Maerten de Vos
The Earth
before 1603
oil on canvas
Prado, Madrid

Maerten de Vos
The Air
before 1603
oil on canvas
Prado, Madrid

Maerten de Vos
Last Supper
before 1603
oil on canvas
National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo

ROMA

Again and again I kiss thy gates at departing
And against our will leave thy holy door-stone,
Praying in tears and with praises
              such words as can pierce our tears.

Hear us, Queen, fairest in all the earth, Roma,
Taking post twixt the sky's poles,
Nurse of men! Mother of gods,
                                          do thou hear us.
Even we hymn thee and will, while the Fates can have power.
No guest can forget thee.
              It were worse crime than forgetting the sun
If we ceased holding thy honor in heart,
Thou impartial as sunlight to the splash of all outer sea-boards.
All that Apollo over-rides in his quadriga
Hast thou combined into equity:
Many strange folk in one fatherland,
To their good, not seeking to dominate;
Gavest law to the conquered as consorts;
Made city what had been world.

They say that Venus was thy mother, that is by Aeneas,
Mars for father hadst'ou through Romulus,
Making mild armed strength, she in conquest:
One god in two natures;
                                       Joy out of strife by sparing
O'ercamest the sources of terror
In love with all that remains.

Rutilius Claudius Namatianus was born in Gaul in the late fourth century AD, and held high office at the court of Honorius. His poem of return from Rome, De Reditu Suo, contains a famous tribute to the city, written shortly after its siege and sack by Alaric the Goth in AD 410. This translation was made by Ezra Pound in 1963.

Joachim Wtewael
Martyrdom of St Sebastian
1600
oil on canvas
Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City

Joachim Wtewael
Annunciation to the Shepherds
1606
oil on canvas
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

Hans von Aachen
Bacchus, Ceres and Amor
ca. 1595-1605
oil on canvas
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Abraham Bloemaert
Joseph and his Brothers
ca. 1595-1600
oil on canvas
Centraal Museum, Utrecht

Orazio Gentileschi
Stigmatization of St Francis
ca. 1600-1601
oil on canvas
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

Giulio Cesare Procaccini
Coronation of the Virgin, with St Joseph and St Francis of Assisi
ca. 1604-07
oil on panel
Getty Museum, Los Angeles

John de Critz the Elder
Portrait of James I of England
ca. 1606
oil on canvas
Dulwich Picture Gallery, London

Caravaggio
Ecce Homo
1605
oil on canvas
Galleria di Palazzo Bianco, Genoa

Caravaggio
Crowning with Thorns
ca. 1602-04
oil on canvas
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Caravaggio
Madonna of the Rosary
ca. 1605-07
oil on canvas
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Battistello Caracciolo
Two youths with grapes
ca. 1605
oil on panel
Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

European Drawings from the 1590s

Johannes Stradanus
Printers at Work
ca. 1590
drawing
Royal Collection, Windsor

Anonymous artist working in Bologna
Madonna and Child
ca. 1590-1600
drawing
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Hendrik Goltzius
Classical Statue known as the Albani Faun
1590-91
drawing
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Cristofano Roncalli
Hellenistic sculpture known as the Dying Alexander
ca. 1590-1620
drawing
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

The Burning Babe

As I in hoary winter's night
   Stood shivering in the snow,
Surprised I was with sudden heat,
   Which made my heart to glow.

And lifting up a fearful eye
   To view what fire was near,
A pretty Babe all burning bright
   Did in the air appear;

Who, scorched with excessive heat,
   Such floods of tears did shed,
As though his floods should quench his flames
   Which with his tears were fed.

'Alas', quoth he, 'but newly born
   In fiery heats I fry,
Yet none approach to warm their hearts,
   Or feel my fire, but I.

'My faultless breast the furnace is,
   The fuel wounding thorns;
Love is the fire, and sighs the smoke,
  The ashes, shame and scorns;

'The fuel Justice layeth on,
   And Mercy blows the coals;
The metal in this furnace wrought
   Are men's defiled souls:

'For which, as now on fire I am
   To work them to their good,
So will I melt into a bath
   To wash them in my blood.'

With this he vanished out of sight
  And swiftly shrunk away,
And straight I called unto mind
   That it was Christmas day.

– by Robert Southwell, SJ (written 1586-92, published 1602)

Cristofano Roncalli
Study of Head
ca. 1590-1620
drawing
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Girolamo Muziano
Christ driving Money-changers from the Temple
before 1592
drawing
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Girolamo Muziano
Raising of Lazarus
before 1592
drawing
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Jacopo Tintoretto
Studies for Samson slaying the Philistines
before 1594
chalk drawing
Morgan Library, New York

from The Tragedie of Dido, Queene of Carthage (1594)

Aeneas: Then he unlockt the Horse, and suddenly
From out his entrails, Neoptolemus
Setting his spear upon the ground, leapt forth,
And after him a thousand Grecians more,
In whose sterne faces shin'd the quenchles fire,
That after burnt the pride of Asia.
By this the Campe was come unto the walles,
And through the breach did march into the streetes,
Where meeting with the rest, kill kill they cryed.
Frighted with this confused noyse, I rose,
And looking from a turret, might behold
Young infants swimming in their parents bloud,
Headles carkasses piled up in heapes,
Virgins halfe dead dragged by their golden haire,
And with maine force flung on a ring of pikes,
Old men with swords thrust through their aged sides,
Kneeling for mercie to a Greekish lad,
Who with steele pol-axes dasht out their braines.
Then buckled I mine armour, drew my sword,
And thinking to goe down, came Hectors ghost
With ashie visage, blewish sulphure eyes,
His armes torne from his shoulders, and his breast
Furrowd with wounds, and that which made me weepe,
Thongs at his heeles, by which Achilles horse
Drew him in triumph through the Greekish Campe,
Burst from the earth, crying, Aeneas flye,
Troy is a fire, the Grecians have the towne.

– by Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Nashe, translated and adapted from Book 2 of Virgil's Aeneid 

Guido Reni
Birth of the Virgin
ca. 1595-1600
wash drawing
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Jan Brueghel the Younger
Landscape with Tobias and the Angel
ca. 1595-96
wash drawing
Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest

Christoph Murer
Cartoon for Stained-glass Window
1598
drawing
Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf

Giovanni de' Vecchi
St John the Evangelist
1598-99
drawing
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Annibale Carracci
Study of Ignudo for Farnese Gallery Fresco
1598-99
drawing
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne

Francesco Brizio
Ulisse Aldrovandi presenting his book Ornithologiae to Pope Clement VIII in Bologna
ca. 1599
drawing - print-study for frontispiece
Royal Collection, Windsor

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

1580s

Paolo Veronese
Judith with the Head of Holofernes
ca. 1580
oil on canvas
Musei di Strada Nuova, Genoa

Bartolomeo Passerotti
Coronation of the Virgin
with St Luke, St Dominic and St John the Evangelist

ca. 1580
oil on canvas
Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide

Cornelis Ketel
A Giant Porter
1580
oil on canvas
Royal Collection, Great Britain

Joos van Winghe
Delilah’s Betrayal and Samson’s Imprisonment by the Philistines
ca. 1580
oil on canvas, mounted on panel
Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf

Pedro de Rubiales (known as Roviale Spagnolo)
Battle of Zama
1580-82
fresco
Musei Capitolini, Rome

Joris Hoefnagel
Seashells and view of Cadiz
1580
watercolor on vellum
Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin

Calm after Storm

Now are the threats of cruel sword laid down,
And now the rumour whists of battles sown,
    The noise of crooked trumpet silent lies,
And quiet peace returns to joyful town.
    So, when the waves of swelling surge arise,
While Corus' wind the Brutian seas doth smight,
    And Scylla sounds from hollow caves within,
And shipmen are with wafting waves affright,
    Charybdis casts that erst it had drunk in;
And Cyclops fierce his father yet doth dread,
    In Etna bank, that fervent is with heats,
Lest quenched be with waves that overshed
    The fire, that from eternal furnace beats;
And poor Laertes thinks his kingdoms all
    May drowned be, and Ithaca doth quake.
If once the force of winds begin to fall,
    The sea li'th down more mild than standing lake;
The deep, where ships so wide full dreadfull were
    To pass, with sails on either side outspread,
Now fall'n a-down, the lesser boats doth bear;
    And leisure is, to view the fishes dead
Even there where late, with tempest beat upon,
    The shaken Cyclads were with seas aghast.
No state endures. The pain and pleasure, one
    To other yields; and joys be soonest past.

– from Seneca's tragedy of Thyestes, translated by Jasper Heywood and published in 1581 in Seneca his Tenne Tragedies

Luca Cambiaso
The Visitation
ca. 1580
drawing
Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide

Federico Barocci
Calling of St Andrew
1583
drawing (modello for altarpiece)
 Royal Collection, Great Britain

Maerten de Vos
Allegory of the Choleric Temperament
1583
drawing
Cantor Center, Stanford University

Bernardino Campi
Virgin with Dead Christ and Saints
before 1584
drawing
Royal Collection, Great Britain

Annibale Carracci
Young man drawing
ca. 1585-90
drawing
Royal Collection, Great Britain

Hans von Aachen
Portrait of the painter Josef Heintz
1585
oil on canvas
Národní Galerie, Prague

El Greco
St Francis receiving the Stigmata
ca. 1585-90
oil on canvas
Walters Art Museum, Baltimore

Tommaso Laureti
Battle of Lake Regillus
1587-94
fresco
Musei Capitolini, Rome

Monday, July 24, 2017

Two-dimensional European Art of the 1570s

Melchior Lorck
Ten Women from Stralsund
ca. 1571
drawing
Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen

Johannes Stradanus
Alchemists' Laboratory
1570
drawing
Royal Collection, Windsor

from The Phoenician Women of Euripides, translated by George Gascoigne, 1573 –

Oedipus.  Daughter, I must commend thy noble heart.
Antigone.  Father, I will never come in company
     And you alone wander in wildernesse.
Oed.  O yes deare daughter, leave thou me alone
     Amid my plagues: be mery while thou maist.
Ant.  And who shall guide these aged feete of yours,
     That banisht bene, in blinde necessitie?
Oed.  I will endure, as fatall lot me drives,
     Resting these crooked sory sides of mine
     Where so the heavens shall lend me harborough.
     And in exchange of riche and stately toures,
     The woodes, the wildernesse, the darkesome dennes
     Shal be the bowre of mine unhappy bones.
Ant.  O father, now where is your glory gone?
Oed.  'One happy day did raises me to renoune,
     One haplesse day hath throwne mine honor downe.'
Ant.  Yet will I beare a part of your mishappes.
Oed.  That sitteth not amid thy pleasant yeares.
Ant.   'Deare father yes, let youth give place to age,'
Oed.  Where is thy mother? let me touche hir face,
     That with these hands I may yet feele the harme
     That these blind eyes forbid me to beholde.
Ant.  Here father, here hir corps, here put your hand.
Oed.  O wyfe, O mother, O both wofull names,
     O wofull mother, and O wofull wyfe,
     O woulde to God, alas, O woulde to God
     Thou nere had been my mother, nor my wyfe.

Paolo Veronese
Conversion of Saul
ca. 1570
oil on canvas
Hermitage, Saint Petersburg

Paolo Veronese
Madonna of the Cuccina Family
ca. 1571
oil on canvas
Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden

Paolo Veronese
Dream of St Helena
ca. 1570
oil on canvas
National Gallery, London

Paolo Veronese
Judith with the Head of Holofernes
ca. 1575-80
oil on canvas
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Paolo Veronese
Feast in the House of Simon the Pharisee
1570
oil on canvas
Château de Versailles

from No haste but good

In haste post haste when first my wandering mind
    Beheld the glistering court with gazing eye,
Such deep delights I seemed therein to find
    As might beguile a graver guest than I.
The stately pomp of princes and their peers
    Did seem to swim in floods of beaten gold;
The wanton world of young delightful years
    Was not unlike a heaven to behold.

– from A Hundreth Sundrie Flowers (1571) by George Gascoigne, most recently edited by G.W. Pigman (Oxford University Press, 2000)

Luca Cambiaso
Madonna of the Candle
ca. 1570-75
oil on canvas
Musei di Strada Nuova, Genoa

Orazio Samacchini
Holy Family with St Catherine of Alexandria,
St Margaret of Antioch, and St Francis of Assisi

ca. 1570-75
oil on panel
Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide

Giovanni Antonio Fasolo
Adoration of the Shepherds
before 1572
drawing
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Antoine Lafréry after Perino del Vaga
Adam and Eve mourning the dead Abel
before 1577
engraving
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Calimachus

The frounyng fates have taken hence
    Calimachus, a childe
Five yeres of age: ah well is he
    from cruell care exilde:
What though he lived but little tyme,
    waile nought for that at all:
For as his yeres not many were
    so were his troubles small.

– an epitaph by Lucian of Samosata (AD 115-180) written in Greek, translated into English by Timothy Kendall, 1577

Philips Galle after Hendrik Goltzius and Johannes Stradanus
Fighting Horses
ca. 1579
engraving
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Hendrik Goltzius after Rosso Fiorentino
Hercules and Geryon
ca. 1577
engraving
Teylers Museum, Haarlem

Turnus' Retreat

With such rebukes mens mindes upkindled staied, and thick with preas
They stoode. But small and small from flight did Turnus then surceas,
Retiryng to that side where stood the fortresse gerdes aboute.
So much the more pursute the Troyans make with restles shoute,
And clustrying close they shoove. As when sometime men gathring thicke
A Lyon wylde assaylne, and hard with tooles oppressying pricke.
But he affraied resists, sowerskowling grim he backward strides,
And neither tayle to turne his pride him lets, nor wrath his sides
Will suffryng make him shew, nor forward can set furth his joynts,
Though fain he would, not able he is yet for men, for weapons poynts.
None otherwise did Turnus then retracting seeke bypath,
With stalking doubtfull steps, and deepe in minde reboyles his wrath.

– from the Aeneid of Virgil, translation by Thomas Phaer published posthumously in 1573

Maerten de Vos
Leopard
ca. 1572
oil on panel
Staatliches Museum, Schwerin

Giovanni Battista Moroni
The Vestal Virgin Tuccia
before 1578
oil on canvas
National Gallery, London